Endnotes

  1. Evans, W. (2018, June 14). Are Prison Populations Decreasing? Depends On Where You Look.
    Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/06/14/619827057/are-prison-populations-decreasing-depends-on-where-you-look
  2. Gelb, A., & Velazquez, T. (2018, August 1). The Changing State of Recidivism: Fewer People Going Back to Prison.
    Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2018/08/01/the-changing-state-of-recidivism-fewer-people-going-back-to-prison
  3. Sawyer, W., & Wagner, P. (2019, March 19). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019 (Rep.).
    Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.html
  4. Sawyer, W., & Wagner, P. (2019, March 19). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019 (Rep.).
    Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.html
  5. Gelb, A., & Denney, J. (2018, January 16). National Prison Rate Continues to Decline Amid Sentencing, Re-Entry Reforms.
    Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2018/01/16/national-prison-rate-continues-to-decline-amid-sentencing-re-entry-reforms
  6. Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results. (2018, November).
    Retrieved from https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/StatesDeliverResults-2018.pdf
  7. Umez, C., & Pirius, R. (2018, July 17). Barriers To Work: People With Criminal Records.
    Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/barriers-to-work-individuals-with-criminal-records.aspx
  8. Horowitz, J. (2018, October 31). 1 in 55 U.S. Adults Is on Probation or Parole.
    Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2018/10/31/1-in-55-us-adults-is-on-probation-or-parole
  9. Carson, E. A. (2018, January). Prisoners in 2016.
    Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p16.pdf
  10. Sawyer, W., & Wagner, P. (2019, March 19). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019 (Rep.).
    Retrieved from  https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019.html
  11. Horowitz, J. (2019, January 19). Community Supervision Too Often Leads to Incarceration.
    Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/about/news-room/opinion/2019/01/19/community-supervision-too-often-leads-to-incarceration
  12. Kelly, W.R. (2017) From Retribution to Public Safety: Disruptive Innovation of American Criminal Justice. Rowman & Littlefield.
  13. Wagner, P., & Rabuy, B. (2017, January 25). Following the Money of Mass Incarceration.
    Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/money.html
  14. McLaughlin, M., Pettus-Davis, C., Brown, D., Veeh, C., & Renn, T. (2017, July). The Economic Burden of Incarceration in the U.S.
    Retrieved from https://joinnia.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/The-Economic-Burden-of-Incarceration-in-the-US-2016.pdf
  15. Walsh, A. (2016, August 15). The criminal justice system is riddled with racial disparities.
    Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2016/08/15/cjrace/
  16. Jailing People with Mental Illness. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/learn-more/public-policy/jailing-people-with-mental-illness
  17. Gates, A., Artiga, S., & Rudowitz, R. (2014, September 5). Health Coverage and Care for the Adult Criminal Justice-Involved Population.
    Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/health-coverage-and-care-for-the-adult-criminal-justice-involved-population/
  18. Schwartzapfel, B., & Hancock, J. (2016, December 06). Out of Prison, Uncovered.
    Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/2016/12/06/out-of-prison-uncovered?ref=hp-1-111#.0pgxaKhEI
  19. Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results (Rep.). (2014, June).
    Retrieved from  https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/ReducingRecidivism_StatesDeliverResults.pdf
  20. Corley, C. (2018, July 31). North Dakota Prison Officials Think Outside The Box To Revamp Solitary Confinement.
    Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/07/31/630602624/north-dakota-prison-officials-think-outside-the-box-to-revamp-solitary-confineme
  21. Detainee Programs and Services. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://www.cookcountysheriff.org/cook-county-department-of-corrections/programs-and-services/
  22. Education and Vocational Training in Prisons Reduces Recidivism, Improves Job Outlook. (2013, August 22).
    Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/news/press/2013/08/22.html
  23. Strengthening Families and Communities. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://www.vera.org/strengthening-families-communities
  24. Davis, L., Steele, J., Bozick, R., Williams, M., Turner, S., Miles, J., . . . Steinberg, P. (2014). How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? (Rep.).
    Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR564.html
  25.  Smith, A. A. (2018, November 6). Colleges push for more resources to support prison education programs.
    Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/11/06/colleges-push-more-resources-support-prison-education-programs
  26. Davis, L., Steele, J., Bozick, R., Williams, M., Turner, S., Miles, J., . . . Steinberg, P. (2014). How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? (Rep.).
    Retrieved from  https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR564.html 
  27. The Consideration of Criminal Records in Occupational Licensing (Rep.). (2015, December).
    Retrieved from  https://csgjusticecenter.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/12/TheConsiderationofCriminalRecordsinOccupationalLicensing.pdf
  28. Why Prison Education? (n.d.).
    Retrieved from http://prisonstudiesproject.org/why-prison-education-programs/
  29. Federal Pell Grant Program. (2015, June 04).
    Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/programs/fpg/index.html
  30. 12,000 Incarcerated Students to Enroll in Postsecondary Educational and Training Programs Through Education Department’s New Second Chance Pell Pilot Program. (2016, June 24).
    Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/12000-incarcerated-students-enroll-postsecondary-educational-and-training-programs-through-education-departments-new-second-chance-pell-pilot-program
  31. Casselman, B. (2018, January 13). As Labor Pool Shrinks, Prison Time Is Less of a Hiring Hurdle.
    Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/13/business/economy/labor-market-inmates.html
  32. Yelowitz, A., & Bollinger, C. (2015, March). Prison-To-Work: The Benefits of Intensive Job-Search Assistance for Former Inmates (Rep.).
    Retrieved from  https://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/prison-work-5876.html
  33. Homelessness Assistance Programs. (2019).
    Retrieved from https://www.hudexchange.info/homelessness-assistance/
  34. Nowhere to Go: Homelessness among formerly incarcerated people(Rep.).
    Retrieved from  https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/housing.html
  35. Goshin, L. S., Byrne, M. W. & Henninger, A. M. (2014), Recidivism after Release from a Prison Nursery Program. Public Health Nurs, 31: 109-117. doi:10.1111/phn.12072
  36. Dumont, D. M., Brockmann, B., Dickman, S., Alexander, N., & Rich, J. D. (2012). Public health and the epidemic of incarceration. Annual review of public health, 33, 325 - 39
  37. Maruschak, L., Berzofsky, M., & Unangst, J. (2016, October 4). Medical Problems of State and Federal Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2011–12 (Rep.).
    Retrieved from  https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/mpsfpji1112.pdf
  38. Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration. (2013). Impact of Incarceration on Health.
    Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK201966/
  39. Vestal, C. (2016, May 23). At Rikers Island, a Legacy of Medication-Assisted Opioid Treatment.
    Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2016/05/23/at-rikers-island-a-legacy-of-medication-assisted-opioid-treatment
  40. Maine Corrections Pharmacy Focus Group, “Interim Report to the Joint Standing Committees for Appropriations and Financial Affairs and Health and Human Services” (2009),
    Retrieved from https://www.maine.gov/corrections/BOC/refs/InterimReport.doc.
  41. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Pharmaceutical Bulk Purchasing: Multi-state and Inter-agency Plans,” (Nov. 4, 2016),
    Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/bulk-purchasing-of-prescription-drugs.aspx.
  42. Martelle, M., Farber, B., Stazesky, R., Dickey, N., Parsons, A., & Venters, H. (2015). Meaningful Use of an Electronic Health Record in the New York City Jail System. American journal of public health, 105(9), 1752-4.
  43. Growing Inmate Crowding Negatively Affects Inmates, Staff, and Infrastructure (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved September 2012, from U.S. Government Accountability Office website: https://www.gao.gov/assets/650/648123.pdf
  44. Rouvalis, C. (2006, August 10). Child-friendly family center to open at jail.
    Retrieved from https://www.post-gazette.com/uncategorized/2006/08/10/Child-friendly-family-center-to-open-at-jail/stories/200608100354
  45. Delaney, R., Subramanian, R., Shames, A., & Turner, N. (2018, October). Reimagining Prison (Rep.).
    Retrieved from https://www.vera.org/reimagining-prison-web-report
  46. Gotoff, D., & Lake, C. (2018, November 13). Voters Want Criminal Justice Reform. Are Politicians Listening?
    Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/2018/11/13/voters-want-criminal-justice-reform-are-politicians-listening
  47. The Justice Reinvestment Initiative. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/JRI_2pager_FINAL.pdf
  48. Justice Reinvestment Initiative: How States Use Data to Design Innovative Strategies to Reduce Crime, Recidivism, and Costs. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/JR_2Pager_Feb2019.pdf
  49. T. (2018, July). 35 States Reform Criminal Justice Policies Through Justice Reinvestment.
    Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/-/media/assets/2018/07/pspp_reform_matrix.pdf
  50. The Justice Reinvestment Initiative. (n.d.).
    Retrieved from https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/JRI_2pager_FINAL.pdf
  51. Shames, A., & Subramanian, R. (2016, November). Common Ground: How all of Oregon Contributes to Criminal Justice Reform (Rep.).
    Retrieved from https://storage.googleapis.com/vera-web-assets/downloads/Publications/common-ground-how-all-of-oregon-contributes-to-criminal-justice-reform/legacy_downloads/common-ground-oregon-criminal-justice-reform-web-updated.pdf
  52. Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration. (2013). Impact of Incarceration on Health.
    Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK201966/
  53. Ford, M. (2015, June 08). America's Largest Mental Hospital Is a Jail.
    Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/06/americas-largest-mental-hospital-is-a-jail/395012/
  54. Metro Government of Nashville & Davidson County, Tennessee. (2018, February 28). Nashville Sheriff Daron Hall Announces Mental Health Summit [Press release].
    Retrieved from https://www.nashville.gov/News-Media/News-Article/ID/7283/Nashville-Sheriff-Daron-Hall-Announces-Mental-Health-Summit.aspx
  55. Roman, J. K. (2015, September). Solving the Wrong Pockets Problem How Pay for Success Promotes Investment in Evidence-Based Best Practices.
    Retrieved from https://pfs.urban.org/system/files/2000427-solving-the-wrong-pockets-problem.pdf

Convergence Center for Policy Resolution is a national non-profit based in Washington, DC that convenes individuals and organizations with divergent views to build trust, identify solutions, and form alliances for action on issues of critical public concern. Reports and recommendations issued under our auspices reflect the views of the individuals and organizations who put the ideas forward. Convergence itself remains neutral and does not endorse or take positions on recommendations of its stakeholders.

Convergence Center for Policy Resolution
1133 19th Street NW, Suite 410
Washington, DC | 20036
202 830 2310

www.convergencepolicy.org

Convergence Center for Policy Resolution is a national non-profit based in Washington, DC that convenes individuals and organizations with divergent views to build trust, identify solutions, and form alliances for action on issues of critical public concern. Reports and recommendations issued under our auspices reflect the views of the individuals and organizations who put the ideas forward. Convergence itself remains neutral and does not endorse or take positions on recommendations of its stakeholders.

Convergence Center for Policy Resolution
1133 19th Street NW, Suite 410
Washington, DC | 20036
202 830 2310

www.convergencepolicy.org